Hugo Reis
Pedro Carneiro
Raul Santaeulalia-Llopis
Diego Restuccia
Chaoran Chen
Brad J. Hershbein
Claudia Macaluso
Chen Yeh
Xuan Tam
Xin Tang
Marina M. Tavares
Adrian Peralta-Alva
Carlos Carillo-Tudela
Felix Koenig
Joze Sambt
Ronald Lee
James Sefton
David McCarthy
Bledi Taska
Carter Braxton
Alp Simsek
Plamen T. Nenov
Gabriel Chodorow-Reich
Virgiliu Midrigan
Corina Boar
Sauro Mocetti
Guglielmo Barone
Steven J. Davis
Nicholas Bloom
José María Barrero
Thomas Sampson
Adrien Matray
Natalie Bau
Darryl Koehler
Laurence J. Kotlikoff
Alan J. Auerbach
Irina Popova
Alexander Ludwig
Dirk Krueger
Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln
Taylor Jaworski
Walker Hanlon
Ludo Visschers
Carlos Carillo-Tudela
Henrik Kleven
Kristian Jakobsen
Katrine Marie Jakobsen
Alessandro Guarnieri
Tanguy van Ypersele
Fabien Petit
Cecilia García-Peñalosa
Yonatan Berman
Nina Weber
Julian Limberg
David Hope
Pedro Tremacoldi-Rossi
Tatiana Mocanu
Marco Ranaldi
Silvia Vannutelli
Raymond Fisman
John Voorheis
Reed Walker
Janet Currie
Roel Dom
Marcos Vera-Hernández
Emla Fitzsimons
José V. Rodríguez Mora
Tomasa Rodrigo
Álvaro Ortiz
Stephen Hansen
Vasco Carvalho
Gergely Buda
Gabriel Zucman
Anders Jensen
Matthew Fisher-Post
José-Alberto Guerra
Myra Mohnen
Christopher Timmins
Ignacio Sarmiento-Barbieri
Peter Christensen
Linda Wu
Gaurav Khatri
Julián Costas-Fernández
Eleonora Patacchini
Jorgen Harris
Marco Battaglini
Ricardo Fernholz
Alberto Bisin
Jess Benhabib
Cian Ruane
Pete Klenow
Mark Bils
Peter Hull
Will Dobbie
David Arnold
Eric Zwick
Owen Zidar
Matt Smith
Ansgar Walther
Tarun Ramadorai

The evolution of work from home

What is this research about and why did you do it?

The pandemic-induced shift to work from home is a profound change in how many people live and work. We document the shift, explain why it has endured, describe its cross-sectional patterns, and discuss the implications for wage structures, productivity, and the pace of innovation.  

How did you answer this question?

We exploit several surveys of individual workers and business executives. We also present statistics derived from millions of online job vacancy postings. Most of our data sources focus on the United States, but we also tap sources of data for dozens of other countries.

What did you find?

Full days worked at home account for 28 percent of paid workdays among Americans 20-64 years old, as of mid 2023. That's four times the 2019 rate and ten times the rate in the mid-1990s. We first explain why the big shift to work from home has endured. We then show how work-from-home rates vary by worker age, sex, education, parental status, industry and local population density, and why it is higher in the United States than most other countries. We also discuss some implications for pay, productivity, and the pace of innovation.

Work from Home over Time in the United States, Persons 20-64

What implications does this have for the study (research and teaching) of wealth concentration or economic inequality?

Most people, especially those living with children, highly value the opportunity to work from home two or three days a week. In practice, college-educated persons have much greater opportunities to work from home, and they work from home at much higher rates.

What are the next steps in your agenda?

To investigate how individuals and organizations are adapting to the new-found flexibility and variety in working arrangements, and to assess the implications for cities, productivity levels, and the pace of innovation.


Barrero, J. M., Bloom, N., and Davis, S. J. 2023. "The Evolution of Work from Home," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 37(4); pp 23-50

About the authors

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